Federal operations were brought to a halt early Friday after Senator Rand Paul, a conservative in Trump's own Republican Party, blocked a vote on a spending deal before a midnight deadline for extending government funding.
White House principal deputy press secretary Raj Shah said the president is also concerned about spending in Washington, but that the White House supports the bipartisan budget agreement. Both Democrats and Republicans have said they were making progress on a budget that would increase spending limits for defense and non-defense programs.
Sen. Rand Paul (R-Ky.) delayed a Senate vote past midnight Thursday to mark his opposition to an estimated $320 billion addition to the federal budget deficit - something he called Republicans out for supporting: "If you were against President Obama's deficits, and now you're for the Republican deficits, isn't that the very definition of hypocrisy?". "It reduces our deficit by trillions of dollars", said Shah.
"I'd love to see a shutdown if we can't get this stuff taken care of", he said in reference to immigration.
"Our federal government is on an unsustainable fiscal path", said Sen.
Trump plans to end that program, which protects illegal immigrants brought to the U.S.as children, next month unless Congress acts.
Republican leaders say Paul wanted a vote on an amendment that is critical of the overall agreement but leaders couldn't give him that vote even if they wanted to, because it requires consent from all senators.
Democratic leadership in the lower chamber opted to vote against the bill - arguing by passing a deal on caps they lose lose leverage in immigration negotiations.
"We ought to have a debate on this", said Rep. Jim McGovern (D-MA).
Trump tweeted Friday morning that he had signed the bill, writing that the USA military "will now be stronger than ever before".
Democrats blocked a stopgap spending bill in January, triggering a three-day partial federal government shutdown, in part to protest Congress' inaction on Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA), an Obama administration program that Trump ended past year and is now set to expire March 5. The agreement also adds $89 billion in overdue disaster aid for hurricane-slammed Texas, Florida and Puerto Rico, a politically charged increase in the government's borrowing cap and a grab bag of health and tax provisions.
"We need a 21st century MERIT-BASED immigration system", Trump wrote on Twitter on Tuesday. Bill Nelson (D-FL).
Almost $300 billion in new spending included in the bill approved on Friday will ensure the annual budget deficit will exceed $1 trillion in 2019, said the Committee for a Responsible Federal Budget, a private fiscal policy watchdog group in Washington.
For a lot of Republicans, that was not the right formula.
GOP leaders announced they would seek to pass the stopgap spending bill by marrying it with a full-year, $659 billion Pentagon spending bill that's a top priority of the party's legion of defense hawks.
The Senate bill, which has not yet been publicly unveiled, reportedly increases defence spending by $80bn in the first fiscal year and $85bn in the second.